1. CHARLES IVES [CHAR + L + (VISE)← + ES]
2. HENRI MATISSE [HEN + (AM + I + R)← + TISSUE]
3. IRA HAYES [IRA + HAZE (said aloud)]
4. COLETTE [COLE + T + (ET)←]
5. ALAN TURING [AL + AUNT + RING]
6. GEORGE BARANY [G (E) ORGE + BA (RAN) Y]
7. OSWALD AVERY [O (WAS) LD + AVER + Y]
8. ENRICO FERMI [CONIFER + ER + MI]
9. LIONEL BARRYMORE [LION + EL + BURY (said aloud) + MOOR (said aloud)]
10. FRIDA KAHLO [F + RID + A + K + HALO]
The first letters of answers 1 through 7 spell out C-H-I-C-A-G-O, and the first letters of answers 8 through 10 spell out E-L-F.
In the above answer list, we provide links to the ten individuals and the two Broadway shows whose names were encrypted in this puzzle.
GB, in expressing his gratitude to MH for this highly ingenious and exceedingly thoughtful 60th birthday gift puzzle, wishes to point out the special aptness of the Gustav Mahler quote that inspired the puzzle's title (see main page). It turns out that GM is dangling off a distant branch of GB's family tree, on his mother's side (search for "Mahler" on this page). Also, as a graduate of The Rockefeller University, GB very much appreciates the shoutout to Oswald Avery, who made arguably the most important discovery not rewarded by a Nobel Prize, and the presence of Alan Turing among the answers is especially poignant in view of our multiple puzzles memorializing him (click here and here, with at least one more on the drawing board).
Thanks, great friend!