Publications 2016

Avoiding Errors in Electrochemical Measurements: Effect of Frit Material on the Performance of Reference Electrodes with Porous Frit Junctions, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Saba, S. A.; Anderson, E. L.; Hillmyer, M. A;. Buhlmann, P., Anal. Chem. Article ASAP full text

One-Dimensional Ionic Self-Assembly in a Fluorous Solution: The Structure of Tetra-n-butylammonium Tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate in Perfluoromethylcyclohexane by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Rubinson, K. A.; Buhlmann, P.; Allison, T. C, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016, 18, 9470-9475. full text

New Perspectives on Silver Nanowire Formation from Dynamic Silver Ion Concentration Monitoring and Nitric Oxide Production in the Polyol Process, Whitecomb, D. R.; Clapp, A. R.; Buhlmann, P.; Blinn, J. C.; Zhang, J., Cryst. Growth Des. 2016, 16, 1861-1868. full text

Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Structures that Optimize Specific Energy, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Wilson, B. E.; Kashefolgheta, S.; Anderson, E. L.; He, S.; Buhlmann, P.; Stein, A., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 3396-3406. full text

A Disposable Planar Paper-Based Potentiometric Ion-Sensing Platform, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 7544-7547. full text (Highlighted in C&E News)

Donnan Failure of Ion-Selective Electrodes with Hydrophilic High-Capacity Ion-Exchanger Membranes, Ogawara, S.; Carey III, J. L.; Zou, X. U.; Buhlmann, P., ACS Sensors, 2016, 1, 95-101. full text

Rational Design of All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes and Reference Electrodes, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 2016, 76, 102-114. (Tutorial review on solid-state potentiometric sensors) full text

Semifluorinated Polymers as Ion-Selective Electrode Membrane Matrix, Carey, J. L. III; Hirao, A.; Sugiyama, K.; Buhlmann, P., submitted

ELectrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Ion-Selective Membranes: Artifacts in Two-, Three-, and Four-Electrode Measurements, Anderson, E. L.; Buhlmann, P., submitted

Ion Aggregation and N+-C-H NR3 Hydrogen Bonding in a Fluorous Phase, Anderson, E. L.; Gingery, N. M.; Boswell, P. G.; Chen, X. V.; Rabai, J., Buhlmann, P., submitted


Publications 2015


Potentiometric In Situ Monitoring of Anions in the Synthesis of Copper and Silver Nanoparticles Using the Polyol Process, Carey III, J. L.; Whitcomb, D. R.; Chen, S.; Penn, L.R.; Buhlmann, P., ACS Nano 2015, 9, 12104-12114. full text

Electrochemical Stability of Quaternary Ammonium Cations: An Experimental and Computational Study, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Kashefolgheta, S.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 2015, 163, H74-H80. full text

Unbiased Quantification of the Electrochemical Stability Limits of Electrolytes and Ionic Liquids, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Dittmer, A. J.; Wilson, B. E.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 2015, 162, A2250-A2258. full text

Dynamic Silver Speciation as Studied with Fluorous-Phase Ion-Selective Electrodes: Effect of Natural Organic Matter on the Toxicity and Speciation of Silver, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Gunsolus, I. L.; Pérez de Jesús, C. E.; Lancaster, M.; Hussein, H.; Haynes, C. L.; Buhlmann, P., Sci. Total Environ. 2015, 537, 453-461. full text

All-Solid-State Reference Electrodes Based on Colloid-Imprinted Mesoporous Carbon and Their Application in Disposable Paper-based Potentiometric Sensing Devices, Hu, J.; Ho, K. T.; Zou, X. U.; Smyrl, W. H.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2981–2987. full text

Ion-Selective Electrodes and Reference Electrodes with a Solid Contact Having Mesoporous Carbon, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P. U.S. Patent Application: 14/716,564. Filed on May 2015

Ionic Liquid Reference Electrodes With a Well-Controlled Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Buffer as Solid Contact, Zou, X. U.; Chen, L. D.; Lai, C.-Z.; Bühlmann, P., Electroanalysis 2015, 27, 602–608. full text

In Situ Atomic Resolution Studies of the Electrode/Solution Interface By Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Thorgaard, S. N.; Buhlmann, P., In Nanoelectrochemistry, Mirkin, M. V.; Amemiya, S., Eds.; CRC Press, London, 2015, pp 695–748. full text

Electrochemical Reduction of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene in Aprotic and pH-Buffered Media, Olson, E. J.; Isley, W. C., III; Brennan, J. E.; Cramer, C. J.; Bühlmann, P. J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 13088–13097. full text

Effects of Humic and Fulvic Acids on Silver Nanoparticle Stability, Dissolution, and Toxicity, Gunsolus, I. L.; Mousavi, M. P. S.; Buhlmann, P., Haynes, C. L. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 8078–8086. full text

Hierarchically Porous Polymer Monoliths by Combining Controlled Macro- and Microphase Separation, Saba, S. A.; Mousavi, M. P. S.; Bühlmann, P.; Hillmyer, M. A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 8896–8899. full text



  • Publication 2014

  • Calibration-Free Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes With a Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Couple-Based Solid Contact, Zou, X. U.; Zhen, X. V.; Cheong, J. H.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem., 2014, 86, 8687–8692.
  • Paper-Based Potentiometric Ion Sensing, Lan, W.; Zou, X. U.; Hamedi, M. M.; Hu, J.; Parolo, C.; Maxwell, E. J.; Bühlmann, P.; Whitesides, G. M. Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 9548–9553.
    •  Ion-Selective Electrodes with Colloid-Imprinted Mesoporous Carbon as Solid Contact, Hu, J.; Zou, X. U.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 7111–7118.
      • Paper-Based Reference Electrode and Potentiometric Ion Sensing, Wan, W.; Maxwell, E.; Parolo, C.; Bwambok, D.; Thuo, M.; Subramaniam, A.; Whitesides, G.; Zou, X.; Hu, J.; Buhlmann, P.  WO1 patent application 0042697.00391, April 2014


Publications 2013

  • Three Dimensionally Ordered Mesoporous (3DOm) Carbon Materialas Electrodes for Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes, Anh Vu,  Xiaoyue Li, John Phillips, Aijie Han, William H. Smyrl, Philippe Bühlmann, Andreas Stein Chem. Mater., Accepted, September 2013.
  • Reference Electrodes with Salt Bridges Contained in Nanoporous Glass: An Underappreciated Source of Error, Maral P.S. Mousavi and Philippe Bühlmann, Anal. Chem. 2013, 85 (19), pp 8895–8901
  • Solid Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes With a Well- Controlled Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Buffer Layer;Xu U. Zou , Jia H. Cheong , Brandon James Taitt , and Philippe Bühlmann, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85 (19), pp 9350–9355.
  • Fluorous Membrane Ion-Selective Electrodes for Perfluorinated Surfactants: Trace Level Detection and In-Situ Monitoring of Adsorption onto Sand; Chen, L. D.§ ; Lai, C.-Z.§ ; Granda, L. P. ; Fierke, M. ; Mandal, D.; Stein, A.; Gladysz, J. A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem,.2013, 85 (15), pp 7471–7477.(§These authors contributed equally to this work)
  • Characterization of Silver Ion Dissolution from Silver Nanoparticles using Fluorous-phase Ion-selective Electrodes and Assessment of Resultant Toxicity to Shewanella oneidensis: Melisa A. Maurer-Jones, Maral P. S. Mousavi, Li D Chen, Philippe Buhlmann, Christy Haynes, Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 2564-2572
  • Current Pulse Based Reference Electrodes Without Liquid Junctions; Zou, Xu; Buhlmann, Philippe, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85 (8), pp 3817–3821
  • Lifting of the (√3 x 22) Surface Reconstruction of Au(111) in Halide Solutions as a Sensitive Probe to Monitor Adsorption of Cyclodextrin and Its Complexes; Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2013, 693, pp1-8
  • Quenching Performance of Surfactant-containing and Surfactant-free Fluorophore-doped Mesoporous Silica Films for Nitroaromatic Compound Detection, Anh Vu, John Phillips, Philippe Bühlmann, and Andreas Stein, Chemistry of Materials, 2013, 25 (5) pp 711-722.
  • Unbiased Assessment of Electrochemical Windows: Minimizing Mass Transfer Effects on the Evaluation of Anodic and Cathodic Limits, Olson E. J. Bühlmann, P., Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2013, 160 (2) ppA320-A323.


  • A Highly Selective Cyanide-Selective Electrode Based on Zn(II) Tetraphenylporphyrin as Ionophore, Chen, L. D.;Zou, Xu U ;Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (21), pp 9192–9198
  • Receptor-Based Detection of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene using Modified Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon Electrodes, Fierke, M.; Olson, E. J., Bühlmann, P.; Stein, A., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2012, 4 (9), pp 4731–4739
  • Advantages and Limitations of Reference Electrodes with an Ionic Liquid Junction and Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon as Solid Contact, Zhang, Tiantian; Lai, Chun-Ze; Fierke, Melissa; Stein, Andreas; Buhlmann, Philippe, Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (18), pp 7771–7778
  • Self-assembled monolayers formed by 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin and cobalt 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine on iodine-passivated Au(1 1 1) as observed using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 664, 2012, 94–99.
  • Ion-Selective Electrodes with Unusual Response Functions: Simultaneous Formation of Ionophore-Primary Ion Complexes with Different Stoichiometries, Miyake, M; Chen, L. D.; Pozzi, G; Bühlmann, P,Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (2), pp 1104–1111


  • Potentiometric Sensors Based on Fluorous Membranes Doped with Highly Selective Ionophores for Carbonate, Chen, L. D.; Mandal, De; Pozzi, G; Gladysz, J.; Bühlmann, P, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133 (51), pp 20869–20877
  • Getting More Out of a Job’s Plot: Determination of Reactant:Product Stoichiometry in Cases of Displacement Reactions and n:n Complex Formation, Olson, E.; Bühlmann, P. J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76 (20), 8406–8412.
  • Interaction of a Weakly Acidic Dinitroaromatic with Alkylamines: Avoiding the Meisenheimer Trap, Olson, E.; Xiong, T.; Cramer, C.J.; Bühlmann, P. JACS, 2011, 133 (32), 12858-12865.
  • Voltage-induced chemical contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy using tips chemically modified with hydrogen bond donors, Gingery, D.; Bühlmann, P., Surf. Sci.2011, 605, 1099–1102.


  • Highly Selective Detection of Silver in the Low ppt Range with Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes, Lai, C.-Z.; Fierke, M. A.; Corrêa da Costa, R.; Gladysz, J. A.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 7634–7640.
  • Redox Pontial and C-H Bond Cleaving Properties of a Nonheme Fe IV=O Complex in Aqueous Solution, Wang , D.; Zhang, M.; Bühlmann, P.; Que, L., Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132, 7638–7644.
  • Chemical Stability and Application of a Fluorophilic Tetraalkylphosphonium Salt in Fluorous Membrane Anion-Selective Electrodes, Chen, L. D.; Mandal, D.; Gladysz, J. A.; Bühlmann, P., New J. Chem. 2010, 34, 1867–1874.
  • Minimizing Solvent Waste in the Undergraduate Analytical Lab: A Microcell for Cyclic Voltammetry , Olson, E. J., Bühlmann, P. J. Chem. Ed., 2010, 87, 1260–1261
  • Bromine-Passivated Au(111) as a Platform for the Formation of Organic Self-Assembled Monolayers Under Electrochemical Conditions, Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Langmuir 2010, 26, 7133–7137.
  • Electrochemistry with Media of Exceptionally Low Polarity: Voltammetry in a Fluorous Solvent, Olson, E. J.; Boswell, P. G.; Givot, B. L.; Yao, L.; B ü hlmann, P., J. Electroanal. Chem. 2010 , 639, 154–160.
  • Effects of Architecture and Surface Chemistry of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon Solid Contacts on Performance of Ion-Selective Electrodes, Fierke, M. A.; Lai, C.-Z., Bühlmann, P., Stein, A., Anal. Chem. 2010 , 82, 680–688. Abstract
  • Cation-Coordinating Properties of Perfluoro-15-Crown-5, Lai, C.-Z.; Reardon, M. E.; Boswell, P. G.; Buhlmann, P., J. Fluor. Chem.2010, 131, 42–46. Abstract


  • Fluorous Polymeric Membranes for Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Potentiometry, Lai, C.-Z.; Koseoglu, S. S.; Lugert, E. C.; Boswell, P. G.; Rábai, J.; Lodge, T. P.; Bühlmann, P., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 1598–1606. Abstract
  • Subnanomolar Detection Limit Application of Ion-Selective Electrodes with Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous (3DOM) Carbon Solid Contacts, Lai, C.-Z.; Joyer, M. M.; Fierke, M. A.; Petkovich, N. D.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., J. Solid State Electrochem 2009, 13, 123–128. Abstract
  • Structure Determination of Organic Compounds–Tables of Spectral Data, Pretsch, E.; Bühlmann, P.; Badertscher, M., 4 th, revised and enlarged edition, Springer Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2009.
    {German translation published 2010.}


  • Formation of gold nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by thermal evaporation, Gingery, D.; Bühlmann, P., Carbon2008, 46, 1966–1972. Abstract
  • Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids, Boswell, P. G.; Anfang, A. C.; Bühlmann, P., J. Fluor. Chem.2008, 129, 961–967. Abstract
  • Assessment of Density Functionals, Semiempirical Methods, and SCC-DFTB for Protonated Creatinine Geometries, Settergren, N. M., Bühlmann, P.; Amin, E. A., J. Mol. Struct. Theochem., 2008, 861, 68–73. Abstract
  • Fluorophilic Ionophores for Potentiometric pH Determinations with Fluorous Membranes of Exceptional Selectivity, Boswell, P. G.; Szíjjártó, C.; Jurisch, M.; Gladysz, J.; R á bai, J.; B ü hlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 2084-2090 . Abstract
  • Effect of Spacer Geometry on Oxoanion Binding by Bis- and Tetrakis-Thiourea Hosts, Leung, A. N.; Degenhardt, D. A.; Bühlmann, P. Tetrahedron 2008, 64, 2530–2536. Abstract
  • Plasticization of Amorphous Perfluoropolymers, Lugert, E. C.; Lodge, T. P., Bühlmann, P., J. Polym. Sci. B.: Polym. Phys. 2008, 46, 516–525. Abstract
  • Response Mechanism of Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on a Guanidine Ionophore: An Apparently “Two-Thirds Nernstian” Response Slope, Koseoglu, S. S.; Lai, C.-Z.; Ferguson, C.; Bühlmann, P.. Electroanalysis, 2008, 20, 331–339. Abstract

Introdutory Tutorial on Ion-Selective Electrodes!

Philippe Buhlmann's and Li D. Chen's recent review and tutorial: Ion-Selective Electrodes With Ionophore-Doped Sensing Membranes covers topics essential for graduate students or others starting work in the field of ion selective electrodes. It also contains a review of recent work in this field.

A PDF can be downloaded here.

This review will be a chapter in the eight volume book series:

Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials